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Learning Outcomes

This package will help you to

  • understand the purpose of a bibliography
  • know how to prepare a bibliography

A reference list is essential for all types of academic texts. Depending on your academic discipline, your lecturers may require you to prepare a reference list using a particular style. In this package, we will show you how to prepare a reference list using APA style.

Reference list V.S. Bibliography
You may have noticed that some academic texts have a “Reference List” section while some others have a “Bibliography” section. There are some differences between them.

If you are preparing a “Reference List”, you are only listing out all the sources that you have CITED in your work.

If you are preparing a “Bibliography”, you are not only listing all the sources you have cited but also sources you have READ/CONSULTED without actually citing.

Other than the name, they are all the same. In this package, we will just use the term ‘reference list’ for easy reference. Let’s take a look at a sample reference as shown below.

Bantock, G. H. (1968). Culture, industrialisations and education. London: Routeledge and Kegan Paul Ltd.

Brembeck, Cole S. (1971). Social foundations of education: Environmental influences in teaching and learning. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Daugherty, J. and Hammack, M. (1990). Education and society: A Reader. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers.

Dunn, R and Dunn, K. (1978). Teaching students through their individual learning styles: A practical approach. Reston, Virginia: Reston Publishing.

Entwistle, H. (1977a). Class culture and education. London: Methuen and Co Ltd. Entwistle, H. (1977b). Styles of learning and teaching. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Ford, M. E. (1992). Motivating humans: Goals, emotions and personal agency beliefs. Newbury Park: Sage Publication

Could you prepare a similar reference list for one of your papers? Preparing a reference list requires an eye for detail. Before we learn how to compile a reference list, look at the following checklist and decide which points apply to a good reference list.

Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Rating Form

Activity 1: Check the box if you agree with that statement.

You probably now understand the basics of writing a reference list! Some citation management software can help prepare a reference list. However, you still need to proofread your reference list carefully. Visit the web link below and find out more about one of the most commonly used citation management software.

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